Current and Previous Work in Cold Fusion
I've done many experiments
over the years though without proof of the Cold Fusion effect.
Lack of funding was a big impediment. I was limited in the
number of experiments I could do and the number of iterations I
could try. Funding is a big issue in this field.
Materials and equipment are expensive and many hours are needed
to do these experiments properly. Below is a partial listing of the experiments I've
Potassium Hydride, Titanium Carbide Experiment
Oriani: CR-39/Lithium Sulphate Experiment, Fall / Winter 2009
Arata: Palladium/Zirconium Experiment, 2009
High Frequency Experiment, 2008
Capacitive Discharge Experiment,
Creating Ball Lightning using capacitive
- Claims to have found a new
way of producing energy from Hydrogen that would result in home
heaters that have little or no fuel costs.
- Claims 200 times more energy is released per
Hydrogen atom compared to burning the Hydrogen with Oxygen.
- Has attracted more than $60 million in
investments (investments specifically for their energy discovery).
- Has numerous (80+) published scientific papers
showing details of their experiments.
- Claims that the release of energy is the
result of physical contact between Hydrogen and specific catalyzing
atoms, such as Potassium and Sodium, when at temperatures of 500
Celsius and higher (typically).
- Claims the electron in the Hydrogen atom falls
to a lower orbit than was previously thought possible and becomes
what they term a "Hydrino".
- Claims that “dark matter” detected in other
galaxies can be explained by their discovery.
- Has well known leaders of industry on their
- BlackLight Power is based in New Jersey.
BlackLight Power's business presentation is here:
(BlackLight Power website)
(Note: I am not
affiliated with BlackLight
Power in any way. I am only trying to verify their claims.)
BlackLight Power: Potassium Hydride, Titanium Carbide Experiment
I had originally planned to attempt to replicate an experiment done by BlackLight
Power (based in New Jersey). But I put those plans on hold and
decided to create a website comparing the Bohr Model of the atom and
Randell Mills model of the atom:
Below is a description of how I planned to originally
do the experiment (though it is now on hold).
BlackLight Power's experiment that I planned to replicate involves heating chemicals
(Potassium Hydride) to approximately 600 C
and measuring the thermal energy output and comparing it to the
calculated maximum theoretical heat output using conventional chemistry.
The experiment that I originally planned to replicate is from this paper from BlackLight Power:
claims that the ratio of the heat output to the calculated (conventional
chemistry) heat output is 2-6 in some of their experiments and infinity
in other experiments. The ratio would be 1 or lower if the reactions
had followed conventional chemistry. Any ratio above 1 indicates more
energy out than conventional chemistry would allow. In the experiments
where BlackLight Power lists an infinite ratio, there was no known
conventional exothermic (heat releasing) reaction for the given
chemicals but the experiment did produce excess heat. Note that in
these ratio calculations, the
energy to heat the chemicals to approximately 600 C is subtracted out
because that heat energy is used to just "trigger" the reaction.
I personally received recommendations from the CEO of
BlackLight Power (Randell
Mills) that the following four chemical combinations
could be used (though in separate experiments):
(A) KH, Mg, TiC, AgCl
(B) KH, Mg, TiC, EuBr2
(C) KH, Mg, TiC, MgF2
(D) NaH, Mg, TiC, LiCl
where KH = Potassium Hydride, Mg = Magnesium, TiC = Titanium Carbide, LiCl = Lithium Chloride, MgF2 = Magnesium Flouride , EuBr2 = Europium
Bromide, AgCl = Silver Chloride
In a nutshell, BlackLight Power claims that in certain conditions, Hydrogen releases energy and becomes what they term a "Hydrino".
Physical contact between the Hydrogen and specific
catalyzing atoms (Potassium, Sodium etc) at high temperatures, such as
500 Celsius, will cause the electron of the Hydrogen atom to fall to a
lower orbit and release energy. This lower orbit is lower
than was previously thought possible (lower than the n=1 state as used
in the Rydberg equation).
In the Hydrogen atom, the electron orbits at integer
values such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 etc. The first level ("1") is closer to the
nucleus (the proton) than the second level ("2"). Higher values
mean larger orbits and a higher energy level for the electron.
Conventional physics says the electron can not orbit at levels lower
than the first level ("1"). But BlackLight Power says in
specific circumstances, the electron can fall to orbits lower than 1
such as 1/2 or 1/3 or 1/4 and release energy when it falls to the lower
There is a famous equation that relates these orbit
integer values (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 etc) to the wavelength of the light
emitted when the electron falls to a lower orbit. The Rydberg
equation is the following:
1 / λ = R
(1 / nf2 - 1 / ni2)
where λ is the wavelength of the emitted light and ni
is the initial orbit level and nf is the final orbit level
and R is the Rydberg constant. Conventional physics says
that ni and nf can only be integers but
BlackLight Power says that ni and nf
can be fractional states such as n = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 ....1/p (where
p <= 137 and p is an integer).
There are two versions of the BlackLight Power experiment that I plan to build,
Experiment #1 and
Experiment #2. Experiment #1
will be tried first.
Experiment #1: Continuous Temperature Cycling at
Experiment #1 involves cycling between two temperatures and comparing
the total energy put into the "Active" reaction vessel with the total
energy put into the "Control" reaction vessel. The "Active"
reaction vessel will contain the chemicals recommended by BlackLight
Power (KH, Mg, TiC, AgCl) while the "Control" reaction vessel will
contain Aluminum Oxide powder or some non-reacting chemical and a gas that
doesn't react with Aluminum Oxide such as Nitrogen or Argon gas. If the
energy into the "Control" reaction vessel is higher than the average
power into the "Active" reaction vessel then that would be termed the
"excess energy". If the excess energy is larger than could
be explained by conventional chemistry then the experiment will be
deemed a successful replication of the BlackLight Power process.
Experiment #1 involves the following steps:
1. Put approximately 60 grams (total) of the following
chemicals in the reaction vessel having a volume of 45 cc: Potassium Hydride (14 g),
Titanium Carbide (32 g), Magnesium (8 g) and Silver Chloride (6 g).
2. Evacuate with vacuum pump and
then fill with 5 psi of Hydrogen gas (this
pressure may change as information is gathered on the design of this
3. Wrap the reaction vessel with thick ceramic wool insulation so that
it is covered with 6" thick insulation.
4. Heat to approximately 550 C with a band heater on the
outside surface of the reaction vessel while monitoring the amount of energy input into the
band heater. Two thermocouples will be on the outside
surface of the band heater. The actual maximum temperature that it will be raised
to will be determined later since this temperature needs to be
optimized. Temperature measurements will be done with two
thermocouples on the outside surface of the band
5. Turn off heater until the reaction vessel reaches
approximately 450 C. The actual lower temperature that it will be
allowed to cool to will be determined later since this temperature needs
to be optimized.
6. Continue to cycle between the upper temperature
(550 C) and the lower temperature (450 C) for 50 to 100 cycles where one
cycle equals 450 C up to 550 C and then back to 450 C.
*****Update***** I have recently learned that the Potassium
will react with the Chlorine (using example "A" in the list given above) atom to make Potassium Chloride (KCl).
The Potassium will need to be regenerated back to Potassium Hydride (KH)
for the next thermal cycle. This is a problem that I need to
address in my experiment. I plan to find out the best solution by
asking Blacklight Power.
Only a small fraction of the Hydrogen is converted
to hydrinos on each thermal cycle - probably less than 0.5% assuming a
cycle is similar to the thermal experiments that Blacklight Power run.
I have decided to change the experiment and now I am setting up this:
7. Create a "Control" reaction
vessel which will be used as the null experiment. Make it identical
to the "Active" reaction vessel except only add 60 grams of Aluminum Oxide
powder and fill it with Nitrogen or Argon gas. This reaction
vessel is filled with chemicals that will not make any excess heat so
that it can be compared to the "Active" reaction vessel. Feed
enough electrical power into the band heater of this "Control" reaction
vessel to heat it to 550 C and
cycle the power so that the temperature profile matches that of the "Active" reaction
vessel. Compare the electrical energy into the "Active" reaction vessel
with the "Control" reaction
vessel over multiple temperature cycles such as 50 cycles.
The difference in energy between the two systems (Active and
Control) is termed the net energy. The net energy can be compared to the
calculated maximum theoretical chemical energy that could possibly be released by
the chemicals in the "Active" reaction vessel (such as Hydrogen reacting
with Carbon and releasing energy). The excess energy is the difference between the net energy
and the calculated maximum theoretical energy from
conventional chemistry. Presumably the excess
energy is due to the hydrino reaction chemistry occurring in the vessel.
The goal of this experiment is to get a large fraction of the
Potassium to evaporate and condense on each temperature cycle (450 C to
550 C). Additionally, as the Potassium condenses, the gaseous Hydrogen
needs to react with the Potassium to form Potassium Hydride.
BlackLight Power claims the
Hydrino (and therefore excess energy) is
formed when Potassium and Hydrogen are in physical contact with each other at
a high temperature (such as 550 C).
When the Hydrino is formed, the Potassium ionizes to a positive
ion. The Potassium (positive ion) may become a gas (I assume) and eventually condenses in a cooler area of the reaction vessel.
By letting the reaction vessel cool down to approximately 450 C, the Potassium ions will
condense and some Hydrogen will naturally be absorbed and thus produce Potassium Hydride. The next thermal cycle will then heat this solid
or liquid phase Potassium Hydride to a
higher temperature and presumably produce more Hydrinos and excess
energy. Eventually all (or a large fraction) of the Hydrogen will
be converted to Hydrinos and the vessel would need to be replenished
with fresh Hydrogen.
Figure above shows Reaction Vessel (45 cc), Band Heater and one
Thermocouple (second thermocouple not shown) for Experiment #1.
Figure above shows Reaction Vessel (45 cc) surrounded by 6" of ceramic
wool insulation for Experiment #1. Vacuum Pump, valves and
pressure relief valves not
Picture above shows a band heater from Watlow Company.
Picture above shows what the data will look like in a successful
Click here for the proposed Experiment #2: Water Bath
Calorimetry and the BlackLight Power Process.